Linux System Calls' Forum, #1:(第20號系統服務) sys_getpid

jollen 發表於 October 11, 2006 5:01 PM

對於 Linux system call 的研究,我們採取的策略是「依分類」來做討論,而不是依 system call 編號依序討論。透過 system call (kernel-space 端) 的研究,我們除了可以更深入了解作業系統外,更能一探 Linux kernel 的奧妙。

20 sys_getpid linux/kernel/timer.c
類別:Kernel Timer & Process
原型宣告:long sys_getpid(void);
用途說明:取得目前 process 的 thread ID (process ID)。
Kernel (2.6.11 or above) 實作:
/**
 * sys_getpid - return the thread group id of the current process
 *
 * Note, despite the name, this returns the tgid not the pid.  The tgid and
 * the pid are identical unless CLONE_THREAD was specified on clone() in
 * which case the tgid is the same in all threads of the same group.
 *
 * This is SMP safe as current->tgid does not change.
 */
asmlinkage long sys_getpid(void)
{
	return current->tgid;
}

Jollen 的說明

「Linux system calls 討論」系列,我們略過關於 user-space 端的說明,因此大家必須先了解以下主題:

  • system call 的 wrapper function (glibc)
  • 0x80 號軟體中斷 (i386)

sys_getpid 透過 current 巨集取得目前 process 的 ID,kernel code 都可以存取 current 巨集 (我們把此巨集當做 kernel 的 global symbol 來看) 來存取目前 process 的狀態。

current 的 data structure 為 struct task_struct

// include/linux/sched.h

struct task_struct {
	volatile long state;	/* -1 unrunnable, 0 runnable, >0 stopped */
	struct thread_info *thread_info;
	atomic_t usage;
	unsigned long flags;	/* per process flags, defined below */
	unsigned long ptrace;
	int lock_depth;		/* BKL lock depth */
#if defined(CONFIG_SMP) && defined(__ARCH_WANT_UNLOCKED_CTXSW)
	int oncpu;
#endif
	int prio, static_prio;
	struct list_head run_list;
	prio_array_t *array;
	unsigned short ioprio;
	unsigned int btrace_seq;
	unsigned long sleep_avg;
	unsigned long long timestamp, last_ran;
	unsigned long long sched_time; /* sched_clock time spent running */
	enum sleep_type sleep_type;
	unsigned long policy;
	cpumask_t cpus_allowed;
	unsigned int time_slice, first_time_slice;
#ifdef CONFIG_SCHEDSTATS
	struct sched_info sched_info;
#endif
	struct list_head tasks;
	/*
	 * ptrace_list/ptrace_children forms the list of my children
	 * that were stolen by a ptracer.
	 */
	struct list_head ptrace_children;
	struct list_head ptrace_list;
	struct mm_struct *mm, *active_mm;
/* task state */
	struct linux_binfmt *binfmt;
	long exit_state;
	int exit_code, exit_signal;
	int pdeath_signal;  /*  The signal sent when the parent dies  */
	/* ??? */
	unsigned long personality;
	unsigned did_exec:1;
	pid_t pid;
	pid_t tgid;
	/* 
	 * pointers to (original) parent process, youngest child, younger sibling,
	 * older sibling, respectively.  (p->father can be replaced with 
	 * p->parent->pid)
	 */
	struct task_struct *real_parent; /* real parent process (when being debugged) */
	struct task_struct *parent;	/* parent process */
	/*
	 * children/sibling forms the list of my children plus the
	 * tasks I'm ptracing.
	 */
	struct list_head children;	/* list of my children */
	struct list_head sibling;	/* linkage in my parent's children list */
	struct task_struct *group_leader;	/* threadgroup leader */
	/* PID/PID hash table linkage. */
	struct pid_link pids[PIDTYPE_MAX];
	struct list_head thread_group;
	struct completion *vfork_done;		/* for vfork() */
	int __user *set_child_tid;		/* CLONE_CHILD_SETTID */
	int __user *clear_child_tid;		/* CLONE_CHILD_CLEARTID */
	unsigned long rt_priority;
	cputime_t utime, stime;
	unsigned long nvcsw, nivcsw; /* context switch counts */
	struct timespec start_time;
/* mm fault and swap info: this can arguably be seen as either mm-specific or thread-specific */
	unsigned long min_flt, maj_flt;
  	cputime_t it_prof_expires, it_virt_expires;
	unsigned long long it_sched_expires;
	struct list_head cpu_timers[3];
/* process credentials */
	uid_t uid,euid,suid,fsuid;
	gid_t gid,egid,sgid,fsgid;
	struct group_info *group_info;
	kernel_cap_t   cap_effective, cap_inheritable, cap_permitted;
	unsigned keep_capabilities:1;
	struct user_struct *user;
#ifdef CONFIG_KEYS
	struct key *request_key_auth;	/* assumed request_key authority */
	struct key *thread_keyring;	/* keyring private to this thread */
	unsigned char jit_keyring;	/* default keyring to attach requested keys to */
#endif
	int oomkilladj; /* OOM kill score adjustment (bit shift). */
	char comm[TASK_COMM_LEN]; /* executable name excluding path
				     - access with [gs]et_task_comm (which lock
				       it with task_lock())
				     - initialized normally by flush_old_exec */
/* file system info */
	int link_count, total_link_count;
/* ipc stuff */
	struct sysv_sem sysvsem;
/* CPU-specific state of this task */
	struct thread_struct thread;
/* filesystem information */
	struct fs_struct *fs;
/* open file information */
	struct files_struct *files;
/* namespace */
	struct namespace *namespace;
/* signal handlers */
	struct signal_struct *signal;
	struct sighand_struct *sighand;
	sigset_t blocked, real_blocked;
	sigset_t saved_sigmask;		/* To be restored with TIF_RESTORE_SIGMASK */
	struct sigpending pending;
	unsigned long sas_ss_sp;
	size_t sas_ss_size;
	int (*notifier)(void *priv);
	void *notifier_data;
	sigset_t *notifier_mask;
	void *security;
	struct audit_context *audit_context;
	seccomp_t seccomp;
/* Thread group tracking */
   	u32 parent_exec_id;
   	u32 self_exec_id;
/* Protection of (de-)allocation: mm, files, fs, tty, keyrings */
	spinlock_t alloc_lock;
/* Protection of proc_dentry: nesting proc_lock, dcache_lock, write_lock_irq(&tasklist_lock); */
	spinlock_t proc_lock;
#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_MUTEXES
	/* mutex deadlock detection */
	struct mutex_waiter *blocked_on;
#endif
/* journalling filesystem info */
	void *journal_info;
/* VM state */
	struct reclaim_state *reclaim_state;
	struct dentry *proc_dentry;
	struct backing_dev_info *backing_dev_info;
	struct io_context *io_context;
	unsigned long ptrace_message;
	siginfo_t *last_siginfo; /* For ptrace use.  */
/*
 * current io wait handle: wait queue entry to use for io waits
 * If this thread is processing aio, this points at the waitqueue
 * inside the currently handled kiocb. It may be NULL (i.e. default
 * to a stack based synchronous wait) if its doing sync IO.
 */
	wait_queue_t *io_wait;
/* i/o counters(bytes read/written, #syscalls */
	u64 rchar, wchar, syscr, syscw;
#if defined(CONFIG_BSD_PROCESS_ACCT)
	u64 acct_rss_mem1;	/* accumulated rss usage */
	u64 acct_vm_mem1;	/* accumulated virtual memory usage */
	clock_t acct_stimexpd;	/* clock_t-converted stime since last update */
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_NUMA
  	struct mempolicy *mempolicy;
	short il_next;
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_CPUSETS
	struct cpuset *cpuset;
	nodemask_t mems_allowed;
	int cpuset_mems_generation;
	int cpuset_mem_spread_rotor;
#endif
	struct robust_list_head __user *robust_list;
#ifdef CONFIG_COMPAT
	struct compat_robust_list_head __user *compat_robust_list;
#endif
	atomic_t fs_excl;	/* holding fs exclusive resources */
	struct rcu_head rcu;
	/*
	 * cache last used pipe for splice
	 */
	struct pipe_inode_info *splice_pipe;
};
struct task_struct 是 Linux kernel 表示 task 的標準資料結構。sys_getpid 傳回 current->tgid 即完成工作,其中 tgid 表示 thread group ID 即 PID。

--作者/陳俊宏 (www.jollen.org)

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Jollen Chen,Moko365(仕橙3G教室)講師,熱愛研究 Linux 與 Android 技術。曾為 Motorola、HTC、Foxconn、LG、OPPO、騰迅、廣達電腦、緯創、仁寶等超過 50 家企業講授課程。目前在 MokoVersity 擔任軟體工程師,撰寫 Node.js 程式,也在幾家科技廠兼任 Android Framework 研發顧問。您可透過電子郵件 <jollen (at) jollen (dot) org> 或這裡與我連絡。